Texts



Criminal and Devotional Acts of Crowds (1)

The few psychologists who have studied crowds have only considered them from the point of view of their criminal acts, and noticing how frequent these acts are, they have come to the conclusion that ...

Crowds Delay Progress (2)

It is difficult to understand history, and popular revolutions in particular, if one does not take sufficiently into account the profoundly conservative instincts of crowds. They may be desirous, it ...

Crowds and Servitude (3)

A crowd is always ready to revolt against a feeble, and to bow down servilely before a strong authority. Should the strength of an authority be intermittent, the crowd, always obedient to its extrem...

Simple Ideas Leading to Extreme Sentiments (4)

Crowds are only cognizant of simple and extreme sentiments; the opinions, ideas, and beliefs suggested to them are accepted or rejected as a whole, and considered as absolute truths or as not less ab...

The Violence of the Feelings of Crowds (5)

The simplicity and exaggeration of the sentiments of crowds have for result that a throng knows neither doubt nor uncertainty. Like women, it goes at once to extremes. A suspicion transforms itself ...

The Advantages of the Crowd (6)

It is not only by his acts that the individual in a crowd differs essentially from himself. Even before he has entirely lost his independence, his ideas and feelings have undergone a transformation,...

Our Conscious Acts are the Outcome of an Unconscious Substratum (7)

The conscious life of the mind is of small importance in comparison with its unconscious life. The most subtle analyst, the most acute observer, is scarcely successful in discovering more than a very...

A Crowd is as Easily Heroic as Criminal (8)

What constitutes a crowd from the psychological point of view - a numerically strong agglomeration of individuals does not suffice to form a crowd - but special characteristics of psychological crowd...


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